Dating of evidence

(E) Hemitragus bonali, left metatarsal in dorsal view (Val-C9-CJ21-647). verticornis, distal extremity of left humerus (Val-C8-B2-1859), in cranial view, showing anthropic activities. (A) Flake with cortical surface and no butt, of limestone. (F) Pebble of quartzite, with a removal negative (percussion instrument). (H) Refitting flake on hammerstone of sandy limestone.(B) Flake with cortical surface and no butt, of quartzite. One stratigraphic horizon, PLI-H1 of complex I below the archaeological complex III, and three horizons VM3, PLIV-M and PLIV-S of complex IV above the archaeological complex III (Fig.The U-Pb ages of calcite samples, PLI-H1 of complex I and PLIV-M and VM3 of complex IV. Vertical blue bar denotes the paleomagnetic Cobb Mountain subchron from 1.215–1.190 Ma (ref. (C) Depth profile of measured paleomagnetic inclination from complexes I–V. “J” and “CM” respectively represent the paleomagnetic subchrons termed Jaramillo and Cobb Mountain. The archaeological deposits (complex III: B1, B2, C) are contemporaneous with MIS 36. In view of the importance of this site for understanding Early Pleistocene hominin evolution in southern France, more accurate dating is required.To improve the time scale for deposition of the Vallonnet Cave infilling, a dating program was undertaken using radiometric dating techniques combined with paleomagnetism in a well-known stratigraphic context (Supplementary Fig. Our reconnaissance studies utilized U-Th dating methods on speleothems (Fig.

The results conclusively demonstrate that Vallonnet Cave is one of the oldest European prehistoric sites in France with early hominin occupations associated with an Epivillafranchian fauna.

4, Supplementary Figs 2 and 5) were selected for dating. The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Due to relatively low uranium contents of 100 s ppb (Supplementary Table 2), these are challenging materials for U-Pb geochronology. Correspondence to Véronique Michel or Chuan-Chou Shen or Marie-Hélène Moncel.

(A) Pachycrocuta brevirostris, left mandible with dp2, dp3, P4, M1 in lateral view (Val-C4-CE8–149).

(B) Bison schoetensacki, right metacarpal in dorsal view (Val-A7-B1–3748).

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